Make your own free website on Tripod.com

MAYAN ARCHAEOLOGY

Mayan Timeline - The Final Sunset Dec. 2012 AD

Home | NEW FINDS | Origin of the Mayans | DISCOVERIES IN 2012 | Mayans in Northern Jalisco, Mexico? | Ancient Mayan Civilization | Math & Astronomy | Popul Vuh | Hieroglyphics | Mayan Language & Geography | Mayan Society | Religion, Toltecs, Aztecs | Art, Architecture | Mayan Calendar | Copán, Honduras | Mayan Timeline - The Final Sunset - Dec. 2012 AD | The Ancient Mesopotamia Timeline

                    Last Update: December 24, 2012  7:30 AM CDT

 

 

Mayan Timeline 

 

Below is a comprehensive Mayan Timeline

B.C. 3113                      Current beginning of the Mayan long count calendar

 

PRE-CLASSIC PERIOD  B.C. 2000 – A.D. 250

DATE

MAYA

EUROPEAN

THE WORLD

BIBLICAL

B.C. 2000

Farmers in Mexico,

Guatemala & Yucatán

 

Mesopotamian cities

Age of the Pharaohs

Abraham lives in Ur

of the Chaldees

B.C. 1200 - 1000

Olmec civilization, their monoliths have

Negroid facial features

Greek culture

 

1250 Moses’ exodus

from Egypt

B.C. 1800 - 900

Early pre-classic Maya

Greek culture

Code of Hammurabi

Kings David&Solomon

B.C. 900 - 300

Middle pre-classic

Roman Empire begins

750 1st Olympic Games

BC 563 Buddha is born

221Great Wall of China

BC 722 Babylonian

Captivity of the Jews

B.C. 300 - 250

Late pre-classic Maya

BC 333 Alexander the

Great

Intertestamental period.

O.T. Apocrypha written

BC 4 Birth of Christ

Early Christianity

B.C. 70 – A.D. 150

 

AD 70 Jerusalem taken

Temple destroyed

Mount Vesuvious erupts

New Testament is

Written

CLASSIC PERIODS: Early – A.D. 250 – 600; Late – A.D. 600 – 900

A.D. 250 - 600

Early Classic Period

AD 433 Chichén Itzá.

500's Sciences at Copán

476 fall Roman Empire

313 Constantine

converts to Christianity

Zen Buddhism founded

AD 325 Council of

Nicea

A.D. 600 - 900

Late Classic Period

Building of Mayan cities

640 Alexandria Library

destroyed-300,000 mms

AD 622 Muslim period

Began by Mohammed

900 Masoretic Hebrew

Bible completed

A.D. 987

Kulkulkan becomes god & ruler of  Mayans.

Brief culture flourish

 

 

AD988 Vladimir brings

Christianity to Russia

TERMINAL CLASSIC PERIOD  A.D. 900 - 1100

A.D. 1000 - 1100

Ball court, temples and

Pyramid at Chichén Itzá

First Crusade

Inca Empire begins

in Peru

AD 1054 East – West

Church schism

A.D. 1194

Chichén Itzá is destroyed

 

China invents

Gunpowder – fireworks

 

EARLY POST CLASSIC PERIOD   A.D. 1100 – 1250

LATE POST CLASSIC PERIOD   A.D. 1250 – 1521

A.D. 1263

The Itzá builds the city

of Mayapán

 

 

 

A.D. 1283

Mayapán becomes the

Capital of the Yucatán

 

 

 

A.D. 1441 - 1461

Mayapán in rebellion,

And destroyed &

Yucatán divides into

Many small groups

AD 1456 Guttenburg Bible printed   (Latin Vulgate)

 

 

A.D. 1460

 

A.D. 1492

A.D. 1521

Itzá Mayans settle at Lake Petén

 

Spaniard Cortés begins

Mayan  extermination

 

 

Christopher Columbus

AD 1517 priest Martin

Luther revolts against

Abuses/Catholic church

 

1534 Jesuits founded

AD 1536 King Henry VIII breaks with the Church of Rome.

Forms the “Church of

England

Mayan Timeline 

all rights reserved 1999

 

 

 

     The purpose of this timeline is to give the student the scope and vision of worldwide events that were simultaneously occurring at the time then the Mayan civilization was developing in Mesoamerica.  This knowledge should give the student of the Mayas an insight to  past and perhaps simultaneous links with other parts of the “known world”.

 

NEW:

Lets take a brief look at the Mayans' understanding of time.  They used different names for time periods, such as "Katun" for a 20 year period.  They used a total cycle of 25,625 years.  This time period was divided into 5  "ages" of 5,125 years each.  As you probably know, we are living in the last part of the 5th and FINAL Age, the Age of the Jaguar  which ends on December 21, 2012 (or in the year 2011).  This age began in our year 3113 BC.

     For curiosity, let me runs the numbers back to the beginning in the First Age.  If the 5 age began in 3113 BC,  then the fourth age began in the year 8238 BC.  This then places the beginning of the third age in the year 13363 BC.   The second age then began in the year 16488 BC,

placing the beginning of the first age at 23613 BC.

 

B.C.  3113 -   In the year that the Mayan long count calendar says the  

                       current world and   mankind were created by three

                        gods,  in another part of the world, the  Biblical man

                       Adam was  celebrating his 887th birthday in 3113 BC  (if 

                       you place him at  4,000 B.C.).  Forty-three years  later, 

                       Adam died.

 

B.C.  2000 –    archaeologists say that the first peoples came to the

                         area of present day  Mexico and began farming.  

                         During this time others continued to migrate  into the

                         area known as the Yucatán Peninsula, and on down

                           into present  day  Guatemala.   At the  same time,

                           there were developed  cities in   Mesopotamia

                         such as the City of Ur of the Chaldees.  Its’  ruins can

                         still  be seen from the air.  Abraham left this  city with

                           his wife and  set course for the modern day site of the  

                           “Holy Land”.   Ur  was very  developed by this 

                          time.   Archaeology shows that they  had a type of

                         “flush” toilet.  Further  to the west, Egypt was 

                         already a developed country under the rule of the 

                         Pharoahs.

                     

 

B.C. 1250-1000 The Olmec civilization had developed along with their

                    religion,  along the coastline, just south of the Yucatán

                    Peninsula.  They had  carved out stone monoliths with

                    Negroid facial features.  In Europe the Greeks had

                    influenced the “known world” with their        Helenistic 

                    pantheon of gods, their language, architecture, and art. 

                    The area of  Israel had grown prolifically, a great

                        drought had caused a famine.  Many had migrated to

                        Egypt and had increased their population to the  point

                        that the Egyptians were afraid they might take over

                        their country.   Thus, the Egyptians made slaves of the Israelites. 

                                After many years of   slavery, an adopted son of Pharaoh

                        decided he would give up his claim  to the throne and

                        help free the slaves.  His final decision was made when 

                                he discovered that his real mother was an Israelite. 

                                He   was  responsible  for the great exodus of the 

                        Israelites from Egypt.  His name was Moses.

 

B.C. 1800-900 – The Mayan civilization was just now beginning to take

                        shape.  The  Greeks were still going strong in Europe. 

                        The Code of Hammurabi was  set forth as law.  In Israel

                        their two popular kings were King David and  King

                        Solomon.

 

B.C. 900-300  -   During the middle pre-classic period of the Mayans

                        their villages and  small towns moved from the coast and

                          spread inland across the  lowlands.  They traveled along

                        the rivers, penetrating the center of what  would later be

                                called the “heartland” of the Mayans.  Early Mayan

                        solar  calendars were carved in stone.  The settlements

                        were still small, but  this gave the basic structure for

                              future growth.  Northern present day  Belize was settled

                        at this time.  In the year B.C. 722, the Northern       

                        Kingdom of Israel was carried off into captivity by the 

                        Assyrians.  In  B.C. 750, Isaiah was a prophet to the 

                        northern kingdom of Israel; and  in B.C. 563, Buddha 

                        was born.  In Europe,  by B.C. 333, Alexander the Great 

                        had conquered all of  the known world, sat down on a 

                        rock and  cried because there was nothing else to 

                        conquer.  The Romans Empire  has its beginnings.  The 

                        first Olympic Games begin in B.C. 750.  The  Great  

                        Wall of China is built in B.C. 221.

 

B.C. 300-A.D. 250  During the short time span of the late pre-classic

                        Mayan period, the Old Testament Apocryphal writings

                        took place between B.C. 410-50.   The Maccabean Wars

                        took place.  About A.D. 143, the Essene community had

                         its beginnings.  Rome invades Judea in B.C. 63.  

                        Cleopatra dies B.C. 30.  Egypt becomes a part of the

                        Roman Empire.    Christ is born in Bethlehem in B.C. 4. 

                        He is cricified in A.D. 29.      In A.D. 70, Rome invades

                        Jerusalem and destroys the Jewish Temple.   The New

                        Testament Gospels are written.  By A.D. 250, it is a

                        crime to be a Christian.  General persecution of the

                        Christians began.  Mount  Vesuvius erupts.   

                        In B.C.. 100  The City of Teotihuacán is founded (later

                        called Mexico City).   A.D. 100 -  The Olmec civilization 

                        began declining.    

 

 A.D. 250 – 600 -  Mayan Early Classic Period.  Chichén Itzá at its

                         peak in A.D. 433.

 

                         In the 500’s the sciences of mathematics and astronomy
                         are  flourishing in Copán.  The majority of the stelae 
                         are  sculptured in  late 200’s and early 300’s.  Written 
                         on these stelae are dates in the long  count system.       
                          
                         In Europe, the Roman Empeorer Constantine has a 
                         vision of a cross in the son.  At least in name, he 
                         converts to Christianity in   A.D. 313.  He has his entire 
                         army baptized (sprinkled) and ends the general 
                         persecution of Christians.  Actually, by A.D. 300, there 
                         are  so many Christians, and in prominent positions, it 
                         wasn't practical to persecute them.  It would have made 
                         vacant too many government  positions, it would have 
                         been very difficult to rule.  The Council of  Nicea meets. A.D. 325.  Zen Buddhism is founded.

A.D. 500 -  The Mayan center of Tikal, in the Guatamalan flourishes.

A.D. 600 – 900   Late Classic Period is marked by increase in stela

                           production, strong  political centers such as Tikal,

                           Caracol, Copán, Naranjo, &  El Pilar.  The Mayan

                           area now covers about 15,000 square miles.      In

                           Egypt,  The Great Library at Alexandria is destroyed

                           with its’ 300,000  manuscripts.  In A.D. 622 the

                           Muslim period begins by Mohammed.    The Hebrew

                           Masoretic Text (Bible) is completed in A.D. 900.      

 A.D. 600 -  The City of Teotihuacán and its’ influence on surrounding

                           area  collapses.

A.D. 683 -   King Pacal dies in Palénque, Mexico, and is buried in the

                           Temple of  the Inscriptions.

A.D. 869 -   Tikal reaches its’ peak and starts to decline.  All

                            construction is stopped.

A.D. 899 -  Tikal is abandoned

A.D. 987 -  Kulkulkán, the plummed serpent god of the Mayas, (called

                             Quetzalcoatl by the Aztecs) becomes the ruler and

                             god of the Mayans.   There is a brief flourish in the

                             culture until the year 1194.

 

A.D. 988 -  Vladimir brings Christianity to Russia.

 

A.D. 1000 – 1100 -  Terminal Classic Period – Ball courts, temples, and

                              pyramids  at Chichén Itzá.  In Europe the first

                              Crusades begin.     There is an East-West schism in

                              the catholic church.

 

A.D. 1194 -   Chichén Itzá is destroyed.  China invents gunpowder for

                              fireworks.

Late Post Classic Period

A.D. 1263 -  The Itzá Mayans build the City of Mayapán

A.D. 1283 -    Mayapán becomes the Mayan capital in the Yucatán.

A.D. 1441 -  Mayapán suffers rebellion, and is destroyed from within

                     by the rebels.  The Yucatán is then divided into many

                     small groups,  and the power of the Mayan Empire is

                     broken forever.  In Europe, the Latin Vulgate is first

                     printed.  It is called the Guttenberg Bible.

A.D. 1460 -              The Itzá survivors settle at Lake Petén.  They 

                                 build the capital of Tayasal on an island in the lake.

A.D. 1492 -              Columbus discovers the Americas.

A.D. 1517 -              In Europe, the Catholic Priest, Martin Luther

                                 begins his revolt against abuses by the church.

                                          

A.D. 1521 -              The Spaniard, Hernán Cortés begins his brutal

                                 attacks against the Mayas in general, and literally

                                 massacres all he can encounter.

A.D. 1534 -              The Catholic “Jesuits” (a militant group) are

                                  founded.

A.D. 1536 -              King Henry VIII breaks with the Roman Church

                                 and founds the Church of England, also called  the

                                 Anglican Church.

A.D. 1542 -              The Spanish found their capital at Mérida, in the

                                 Yucatán.

A.D. 1695 -              The Spanish Priest, Father Andrés de Avedańo and

                                 his party,  lost in the jungle of the Petén, discover

                                 the ruins of Tikal.

A.D. 1697 -              The Spanish conquer the Itzá Mayans at the city of

                                 Tayasal at  Lake Petén, thinking that this is the

                                 end of the Mayans.  The revolt continues until

                                 today in Chiapas, Mexico, and in  northern

                                 Guatemala.

A.D. 1761 -              The Mayans of the Yucatán, led by Jacinto Canek,

                                 rebel against the Spanish (called the “whites”).

A.D. 1767 -              The Catholic Jesuits are expelled from Mexico.

A.D. 1847 -              The Mayans of the Yucatán rebel against the

                                 Mexican  government.  The rebellion is almost a

                                 success.  It is known as the “War of the Castes”

 

A.D. 1952 -              King Pacal’s tomb is discovered at Palenque.  This

                                 was the first Mayan tomb found in a pyramid

                                 (temple).  Until this find, it was not known that the

                                 pyramids contained burial chambers.  It was

                                 thought that they were used only for rituals.

A.D. 1992 -              A Quiché Mayan named Rigoberta Menchú went

                                 public in protest against the Guatemalan Army’s

                                 “Death  Squad”, which seemed to be bent on

                                 wiping out  numerous villages of indigenous

                                 people.  She won the  Nobel Peace Prize.

A.D. 1994 -              The Mayans of Chiapas, Mexico begin a rebellion

                                 against the Mexican government.

A.D. 2000 -              The struggle of the Mayans against violation of

                                  their human rights continue in Mexico and

                                  Guatemala.   Other indigenous groups have

                                  similar problems with  the government of

                                  Honduras.  For many years, the                        

                                  Honduran government has promised them land,

                                  and as of yet, have done nothing for the

                                  indigenous people of their country.

 

December 21, 2012, The Final Sunset 

all rights reserved 2000

 

     You might call this date the Maya Y2.012K for lack of a simpler description.   According to the Mayans there have been four “ages” before this one.  They say that we are now living in the fifth and final age; an age they call, “The Age of the Jaguar”.  According to past and current Mayan belief the “Final Sun will set at the winter solstice in December of the year 2012.

          No one seems to discount their prediction probably because of the accuracy of their other calculations.   However, there are numerous theories as to exactly what will happen on that day.  Some theories are based on nothing more than astrology or Tarot cards, in neither of which one should put any confidence.

     Equinoxes and solstices occur because in the earth’s obit around the sun, the earth’s plane of rotation is tilted, that is, the earth doesn’t move around the sun with it’s poles straight up and down.  As the Mayans observed the winter solstice on December 21st, they believed the sun died and then was reborn as indicated by the lengthening of days, beginning with December 22nd.  This process gave once again, more warmth to the earth so that their crops would grow and produce.

     While observing the winter solstice in relation to other heavenly objects they noticed something else.  They noticed that the winter solstice sun each year moved closer and closer towards what we call the Milky Way.  These two great heavenly bodies were slowly but surely converging.  They believed that when these two bodies converged like the hands of a clock, that the Great Time Cycle would end.  With precise calculations,  they then predicted that this convergence would occur on the date 4-Ahau 3 Kankin, which is written  13.0.0.0.0 indicating the completion of last day of the 13th Baktun or  time cycle.  This date corresponds to the Gregorian calendar as December 21, 2012.

          In actuality, this alignment has been slowly converging for thousands of years.  On the above date, there will actually occur a galactic synchronization, that is, between the galactic system and our solar plane, whereby an alignment of our winter solstice sun will conjunct with the crossing point of the Milky Way and have an ecliptic position in Sagittarius.  This crossing point in the Milky Way is a “dark rift” area which the Mayans referred to as the “road to the underworld”.  Present day Mayans call this point in the Milky Way the “crossroads”.      

         Professor Linda Schele referred  to a drawing of this as the “Mayan Sacred Tree”.  One can imagine this “tree” in a drawing of a line from the earth extending up and then outward across the Milky Way.  Directly above the earth, in the center of this upper plane called the Milky Way, there is then an “opening” or dark rift  (or road) shooting off into a black unknown.   The sun will be in this dark rift at dawn on December 21st, 2012.  

           If I interpret the data correctly, the previous such alignment took place approximately 5,113 years ago, in B.C. 3113.  Coincidentally, this was the year the Mayans say the present creation began.  In Mayan mythology the rebirth of the earth at the winter solstice is related to the first father, the father of the Hero Twins as recorded in the Mayan “ Popol Vuh”.    This personage is also known as Hunrakan who destroyed a previous age by flood.   It seems rather unique that the ending millennium coincides with astronomical alignment and with the Mayan prediction of the end of the final age (The Age of the Jaguar).  Perhaps on this date there might be a change on the earth; and beyond this date there might be a “new age”.  

NOTE:  There will be a planetary alignment of the planets Mercury, Venus, and Saturn for the Mayan date of December 21, 2012.  This is the date that the Mayan calendar ends for this 5,200 year period.  This should occur betwwen 3:00 pm and 4:00 pm Texas time, according to my Planetary Program.

     I have found nothing in recorded history that even alludes to any significant event at the end of the first, second, third or fourth age.  So why should it be any different at the end of the fifth age? ...... (Unless we have their date wrong!  :)

      One Great Cycle was known as a "Sun".  The Mayans counted time in cycles of 5 suns, which is a span of 25,267 years.  The Mayans said that at the end of each "sun" there is a cataclysm or catastrophe of some kind, which is followed by a renewal.  The Mayans believe we are nearing the end of out 5th sun in the Great Cycle and that the 5th sun will end and a new First sun will begin on December 23, 2012.
      This also coincides with the orbit of the Earth's Solar System around it's Galactic Center.  One Galactic orbit takes about 25,600 years to complete.  The 5 suns cycle of the Mayans shows their accurate knowledge of this great orbital cycle and the procession of the equinoxes.
      Sun spot activity peaks every 11 years, which affects things like our communications.   Sunspot activity also occurs in longer cycles of each 33 and 110 years.   Scientists predict a sunspot activity of unprecedented proportion to occur in late 2012.
      The Mayan calendar is exactly the same as the ancient Egyptian calendar, which was influenced by the Sumerian Calendar which originated in the city of Nippur.
 

"What NASA is hiding from the world",  "Pole shift leaked by NASA doomsday info 2012 on Galactic Alignment", and  "NASA Confirms 2012 polar shift" see the following 3 videos.

What NASA is hiding from the world

Pole Shift Leaked by NASA

NASA Confirms 2012 Pole Shift