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MAYAN ARCHAEOLOGY

Religion, Toltecs, Aztecs

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RELIGION

 

In some Mayan videos or photos people are seen in places of worship, be it a church or a stone altar on a mountain, swinging a receptacle from which a white colored smoke is seen leaving.   The composition which is burning is called "copal".   This is a word used in both Central America and in Mexico.   It translates as  "resin" (from a tree).  I saw this done at the top of the steps of the catholic church in the town of  Chichicastenango.   It was told to me that the people walk through this smoke (produced in a receptacle on a chain, swung by the priest)  in order to purify themselves before entering the church.  Upon leaving the Catholic church, many then ascend to a hill some distance from the church to do sacrifices to the Mayan god.

 

The major Celestial gods were Kin (the god of the sun), Uh (the god of the moon), Noh Ek (the god of the planet Venus), and Xaman Ek (the god of the North Star).

 

Although the Mayans had a number of lesser gods  such as Ik (the god of the wind), Yum Chaac (the god of rain), and Yum Kak (the god of fire), they also believed in a supreme entity, that was directly involved in the creation of the universe and of the Earth.  Some call his name “Hunab-ku’ “.  In the Mayan language hunab means “only”, and ku means “god”.   So, one can correctly assume that they believed in “one supreme god”, followed by celestial and lesser gods.  But Hunab-ku was the omnipotent god. 

 

 

Some say that this is contradictory to the Popol Vuh (the “Bible” of the Quiche Mayas of Guatemala),  which names the gods Tepeu and Gugumatz as the creator of man, animals, and plants.  In reality, a third god was also named.  The Popol Vuh refers to this godhead as the “Heart of Heaven” (Corazon del Cielo).

 

It is uncertain why this seems to be a question in their minds.  Why can’t Hunab-ku’ be understood in the same sense as “Jehovah”, signifying the center figure of a godhead?   The additional names of Tepeu and Gugumatz could then be understood as a part of the godhead just as “the Son and the Holy Sprit” are

personages of the Christian godhead.  

 

            Magaloni  Duarte  says, “We can prove that Jesus was in Himalaya for a long time.  In a text that still exists in the Monastery of Hemis in Leh, Cachemira (adjacent to Tibet), we find the inarguable historical facts as to how and where Jesus spent his time during his historical absence.  This text states , in part, that:

   ‘When Jesus left his homeland, he first went to Egypt, where he studied the ancient osiriana-maya religion.  From Egypt, he went on to India, where, in many cities, including Benares and Lahore, he studied the teachings of Budda Gautama (who had studied the Mayan religion).  Later, he entered the monastery of Himalaya, where he studied the Maya and their cosmic sciences.  After twelve years, he became a Teacher.’ ”   Duarte states clearly that Christ learned the Mayan language.  “There are many temples and monasteries in India and Tibet that still have in their possession writings which refer to Christ during that period of time.”  He was never called Christ; always Jesus.  “In the monastery of Lassa in Tibet, there is a text which states the following: 'Jesus became the most proficient Teacher ever in this land’.  Today, the name Jesus is more revered in this monastery than in any sect of Christian priests. (Duarte, Op Cit.; pages 75-76.

 

“When Christ was crucified, his last words were HELI LAMAH ZABAC TANI.  These words do not exist in any language of the old or new world other than Mayan.  In Mayan, the ritual isiom of Christ (a historical proven fact), each of the words has a significance”, claims Magaloni Duarte.  “The phrase formed with all words joined is magnificently coherent in Maya, and worthy of the crucified Master.  In the Spanish-Maya dictionary of Ticul (a city in the Yucatan), the significance of these words can be found:

                               

                                      HELI   now, finally, already

                                LAMAH    to submerge, or immerse oneself

                                 SABAC    smoke, vapor, steam, or pre-dawn

                                    TANI     in front or in the presence of

 

The phrase, thus organized, translates:

 

                               ‘Now I immerse myself in the pre-dawn of your presence’.

 

Most people believe that this phrase, translated from the Hebrew, signifies: ‘God, why hast thou forsaken me?’, but the above Mayan phrase also seems acceptable.

 

The book to which I am referring consists of 204 pages and contains observations and experiences gathered during the author’s extensive studies.  It gives the impression that the similarities are not purely coincidental, and that it is possible to conclude that the Nagas, or Mayans, were civilized groups which came from Ifdia to Yucatan, passing through China, Japan, and across the Bering Straight, especially since the Mayan culture is relatively recent (in this hemisphere) compared with cultures if the Far and Middle East.”

 

Gualberto Zapata Alonzo, An Overview of the Mayan World, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, pages 66-70   

 

 

 

TOLTEC CULTURE

 

Understand that the Toltec was a culture and not a race of people.  The etimology of the word Toltec means “craftsman”, “artist”, “constructor” or “civilizer”.  It was from this culture that Quetzalcoatl came.  Born in the town of Cuahuanahuac, which today is known as Cuevnavaca, his name was Ce Acatl Topilzin.

        His father, the Toltec leader Mixcoatl, was assassinated before his birth.  His mother, named Chimalma, died during childbirth.  Topilzin was reared by his grandparents.  The usurper and assassin was later dealt with by Topilzin.   He was later known as Quetzalcoatl.  Later, pressured by the Olmecs, the Toltecs moved their capital, first to Tulancingo, and finally to Tula.   The Tula culture developed rapidly, especially in the arts and sciences.

Topilzin tried to restrict and finally stop human sacrifices.  This caused a lot of friction, and Topilzin was forced to migrate to the southeast.  He passed through the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Veracruz.  This event occured in the year 987 A.D., which coincided with the arrival of the famous Kukulkan (plummed serpent).   For this reason, it is generally assumd that Quetzalcoatl and Kukulkan are one and the same person.   Others argue to the contrary saying that this could not be, because it was Kukulkan who introduced the practice of human sacrifice. (ibid, Zapata Alonzo, pages 34, 35)

 

 

 

AZTECS

 

Upon leaving Azlan, the Aztecs began a long pilgrimage, settling in many places along the way, and finally arrived in thge Valley of Mexico and settled in Coatlicamac, where they fought with scattered groups of Toltecs for the land.  The Aztecs celebrated the end of their calendric cycle of 52 years with an important ceremony that involved the igniting of a new fire for the advent of the next cycle.  It was during this early time that thry changed their name from Aztecs to “Mexicas”. (ibid, Zapata Alonzo, page 42)

 

The organized life of the Aztecs was relatively short.  The period from their foundation in 1345 until their conquest (by the Spaniards) in the year 1521, was only 176 years. (ibid. page 47)

 

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE MAYAS?

 

See The Ancient Mayan Civilization,  page 4

 

 

The Oldest Ballcourt

 

The oldest ballcourt to date (2003) has been found in the ruins of  “Paso de la Amada” in Chiapas, Mexico.  It was first discovered in 1995 by Warren Hill.  It has been radiocarbon dated at about  1700 B.C., some 500 years older than the earliest court to date in Mesoamerica. It measures about 80 yards long, 23 feet wide, and about 6 feet high.  (American Archaeology magazine, fall 1998, p. 7)